File(s) under embargo
Reason: Publisher conditions
until file(s) become available
Ethics and policy for bioprinting
© 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
3D bioprinting involves engineering live cells into a 3D structure, using a 3D printer to print cells, often together with a compatible 3D scaffold. 3D-printed cells and tissues may be used for a range of purposes including medical research, in vitro drug testing, and in vivo transplantation. The inclusion of living cells and biomaterials in the 3D printing process raises ethical, policy, and regulatory issues at each stage of the bioprinting process that include the source of cells and materials, stability and biocompatibility of cells and materials, disposal of 3D-printed materials, intended use, and long-term effects. This chapter focuses on the ethical issues that arise from 3D bioprinting in the lab—from consideration of the source of cells and materials, ensuring their quality and safety, through to testing of bioprinted materials in animal and human trials. It also provides guidance on where to seek information concerning appropriate regulatory frameworks and guidelines, including on classification and patenting of 3D-bioprinted materials, and identifies regulatory gaps that deserve attention.