'Know thyself'- host factors influencing cancer response to immune checkpoint inhibitors.
journal contributionposted on 2022-09-06, 01:31 authored by Ashray Gunjur, Andrea J Manrique-Rincón, Oliver Klein, Andreas BehrenAndreas Behren, Trevor D Lawley, Sarah J Welsh, David J Adams
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionised oncology and are now standard-of-care for the treatment of a wide variety of solid neoplasms. However, tumour responses remain unpredictable, experienced by only a minority of ICI recipients across malignancy types. Therefore, there is an urgent need for better predictive biomarkers to identify a priori the patients most likely to benefit from these therapies. Despite considerable efforts, only three such biomarkers are FDA-approved for clinical use, and all rely on the availability of tumour tissue for immunohistochemical staining or genomic assays. There is emerging evidence that host factors – for example, genetic, metabolic, and immune factors, as well as the composition of one's gut microbiota – influence the response of a patient's cancer to ICIs. Tantalisingly, some of these factors are modifiable, paving the way for co-therapies that may enhance the therapeutic index of these treatments. Herein, we review key host factors that are of potential biomarker value for response to ICI therapy, with a particular focus on the proposed mechanisms for these influences. © 2022 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.