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Virus pathogens in Australian vineyards with an emphasis on Shiraz disease

journal contribution
posted on 06.01.2021, 01:34 by Q Wu, N Habili, Fiona ConstableFiona Constable, M Al Rwahnih, DE Goszczynski, Y Wang, V Pagay
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

Grapevine viruses are found throughout the viticultural world and have detrimental effects on vine productivity and grape and wine quality. This report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review on grapevine viruses in Australia with a focus on “Shiraz Disease” (SD) and its two major associated viruses, grapevine virus A (GVA) and grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3). Sensitive grapevine cultivars like Shiraz infected with GVA alone or with a co-infection of a leafroll virus, primarily GLRaV-3, show symptoms of SD leading to significant yield and quality reductions in Australia and in South Africa. Symptom descriptors for SD will be outlined and a phylogenetic tree will be presented indicating the SD-associated isolates of GVA in both countries belong to the same clade. Virus transmission, which occurs through infected propagation material, grafting, and naturally vectored by mealybugs and scale insects, will be discussed. Laboratory and field-based indexing will also be discussed along with management strategies including rogueing and replanting certified stock that decrease the incidence and spread of SD. Finally, we present several cases of SD incidence in South Australian vineyards and their effects on vine productivity. We conclude by offering strategies for virus detection and management that can be adopted by viticulturists. Novel technologies such as high throughput sequencing and remote sensing for virus detection will be outlined.


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Article Number

ARTN 818







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