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Unravelling Bile Viromes of Free-Range Laying Chickens Clinically Diagnosed with Spotty Liver Disease: Emergence of Many Novel Chaphamaparvoviruses into Multiple Lineages

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posted on 2023-08-24, 23:36 authored by Subir SarkerSubir Sarker, S Talukder, A Anwar, TTH Van, Steve PetrovskiSteve Petrovski
Spotty liver disease (SLD) causes substantial egg production losses and chicken mortality; therefore, it is a disease that concerns Australian egg farmers. Over the last few decades, much research has been conducted to determine the etiologic agents of SLD and to develop potential therapeutics; however, SLD still remains a major issue for the chicken industries globally and remained without the elucidation of potentially multiple pathogens involved. To help fill this gap, this study was aimed at understanding the viral diversity of bile samples from which the SLD-causing bacterium, Campylobacter hepaticus, has been isolated and characterised. The collected samples were processed and sequenced using high-throughput next-generation sequencing. Remarkably, this study found 15 galliform chaphamaparvoviruses (GaChPVs), of which 14 are novel under the genus Chaphamaparvovirus. Among them, nine were complete genomes that showed between 41.7% and 78.3% genome-wide pairwise similarities to one another. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis using the NS1 gene exhibited a multiple incursion of chaphamaparvovirus lineages, including a novel lineage of unknown ancestral history in free-range laying chickens in Australia. This is the first evidence of circulating many parvoviruses in chickens in Australia, which has increased our knowledge of the pathogen diversity that may have an association with SLD in chickens.

Funding

This study was funded by the La Trobe University ABC Scheme, ECRs and MCRs Awards 2021. S. Sarker is the recipient of an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (Grant No. DE200100367) funded by the Australian Government.

History

Publication Date

2022-11-17

Journal

Viruses

Volume

14

Issue

11

Article Number

2543

Pagination

15p.

Publisher

MDPI

ISSN

1999-4915

Rights Statement

© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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