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Understanding traditional and modern eating: the TEP10 framework

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-05-11, 04:09 authored by G Sproesser, Matthew RubyMatthew Ruby, N Arbit, CS Akotia, MDS Alvarenga, R Bhangaokar, I Furumitsu, X Hu, S Imada, G Kaptan, M Kaufer-Horwitz, U Menon, C Fischler, P Rozin, HT Schupp, B Renner
Across the world, there has been a movement from traditional to modern eating, including a movement of traditional eating patterns from their origin culture to new cultures, and the emergence of new foods and eating behaviors. This trend toward modern eating is of particular significance because traditional eating has been related to positive health outcomes and sustainability. Yet, there is no consensus on what constitutes traditional and modern eating. The present study provides a comprehensive compilation of the various facets that seem to make up traditional and modern eating. Specifically, 106 facets were mentioned in the previous literature and expert discussions, combining international and interdisciplinary perspectives. The present study provides a framework (the TEP10 framework) systematizing these 106 facets into two major dimensions, what and how people eat, and 12 subdimensions. Hence, focusing only on single facets of traditional and modern eating is an oversimplification of this complex phenomenon. Instead, the multidimensionality and interplay between different facets should be considered to gain a comprehensive understanding of the trends, consequences, and underlying factors of traditional and modern eating.


This work was supported by the German Research Foundation within the project "Why people eat in a traditional or modern way: A cross-country study" (Grant SP 1610/2-1, granted to GS) and by the JSPS KAKENHI Grant (Grant Number JP16KT0097, granted to SI and IF). Additional funding came from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany (BMBF; Project SmartAct; Grant 01EL1420A, granted to BR & HS). The funding sources had no involvement in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the article for publication.


Publication Date



BMC Public Health





Article Number





BioMed Central



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© The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.