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Travel time prediction and explanation with spatio-temporal features: A comparative study

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posted on 2022-09-07, 04:51 authored by I Ahmed, I Kumara, V Reshadat, A S M KayesA S M Kayes, WJ van den Heuvel, DA Tamburri
Travel time information is used as input or auxiliary data for tasks such as dynamic navigation, infrastructure planning, congestion control, and accident detection. Various data-driven Travel Time Prediction (TTP) methods have been proposed in recent years. One of the most challenging tasks in TTP is developing and selecting the most appropriate prediction algorithm. The existing studies that empirically compare different TTP models only use a few models with specific features. More-over, there is a lack of research on explaining TTPs made by black-box models. Such explanations can help to tune and apply TTP methods successfully. To fill these gaps in the current TTP literature, using three data sets, we compare three types of TTP methods (ensemble tree-based learning, deep neural networks, and hybrid models) and ten different prediction algorithms overall. Furthermore, we apply XAI (Explainable Artificial Intelligence) methods (SHAP and LIME) to understand and interpret models’ predictions. The prediction accuracy and reliability for all models are evaluated and compared. We observed that the ensemble learning methods, i.e., XGBoost and LightGBM, are the best performing models over the three data sets, and XAI methods can adequately explain how various spatial and temporal features influence travel time.

History

Publication Date

2022-01-01

Journal

Electronics

Volume

11

Issue

1

Article Number

106

Pagination

18p.

Publisher

MDPI

Rights Statement

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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