La Trobe
19Afzal XuJM EI The negative impact of cadmium on nitrogen transformation processes in a paddy soil is greater under non-flooding than flooding conditions.pdf (2.18 MB)

The negative impact of cadmium on nitrogen transformation processes in a paddy soil is greater under non-flooding than flooding conditions

Download (2.18 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2021-02-05, 05:50 authored by Muhammad Afzal, Mengjie Yu, Caixian TangCaixian Tang, Lujun Zhang, Niaz Muhammad, Haochun Zhao, Jiayin Feng, Lu Yu, Jianming Xu
© 2019 The Authors Nitrification and denitrification are two important processes in the nitrogen (N) cycle. Under heavy-metal pollution with water management of paddy soils, these two processes are not well understood. This study aimed to examine the effect of cadmium (Cd) on N transformation under flooding and non-flooding conditions. A paddy soil was incubated under two water regimes (flooding and non-flooding) and four Cd levels (0, 2, 5 and 10 mg kg−1). The availability of Cd was higher in the non-flooding than flooding conditions. Cadmium contamination significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased the copy number of archaeal and bacterial amoA genes, bacterial nirS, nirK and nosZ genes under both conditions with the decrease being greater under non-flooding. High level of Cd (10 mg kg−1) was more toxic in non-flooding than flooding conditions to the nitrifiers and denitrifiers, which in turn decreased N transformation through microbially-mediated processes. Its contamination decreased N2O emission initially under both water regimes but the effect was greater under the non-flooding condition. However, the non-significant stimulatory effect of Cd on N2O emission was observed during the late phase. The microbial community structure was changed with time and water regimes. Irrespective of water regime, the dominated fungal phyla were Ascomycota and Basidiomycota while the dominated bacteria phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Acidobacteria. In summary, water regimes and Cd bioavailability changed soil N transformations via microbial mediated processes.


This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41721001), the Science and Technology Program of Zhejiang Province (2018C03028), the 111 Project (B17039), and China Agriculture Research System (CARS-01-30).


Publication Date



Environment International




10p. (p. 451-460)





Rights Statement

The Author reserves all moral rights over the deposited text and must be credited if any re-use occurs. Documents deposited in OPAL are the Open Access versions of outputs published elsewhere. Changes resulting from the publishing process may therefore not be reflected in this document. The final published version may be obtained via the publisher’s DOI. Please note that additional copyright and access restrictions may apply to the published version.