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The effects of microcrystalline cellulose on the flammability and thermal behaviours of flame retarded natural fibre epoxy composite

journal contribution
posted on 31.03.2021, 05:45 by Pooria Khalili, Xiao Ling Liu, Kim Yeow Tshai, Ing Kong, Chris Rudd, Xiao Su Yi
© 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to fabricate and characterize the natural fibre (NF) reinforced epoxy composites containing flame retardants (FRs) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in terms of flammability, thermal properties and dynamic mechanical performances. Design/methodology/approach: The FRs used in this study were ammonium polyphosphate and alumina trihydrate. Findings: The results demonstrated that the addition of MCC particles into the flame retardant composite (control) further enhanced the self-extinguishing properties of composites, in particular, the burn length. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the mass residue improved with every addition of MCC particles at 700 °C. For instance, the residual weight enhanced from 28.4 Wt.% to 33 Wt.% for the control and the composite with 7 Wt.% MCCs, respectively. As obtained from the dynamic mechanical analysis, the glass transition temperature of composites increased upon increasing inclusion of MCC particles. For example, this parameter was 77.1 °C and 86.8 °C for the control and composite loaded with 7 Wt.% MCC, respectively. Originality/value: Thus, the combination of MCC and FR had been proved to be a promising flame retardant system for NF reinforced epoxy.


This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) Malaysia under Grant 03-02-12-SF0212 as well as the Faculty of Engineering at University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus.


Publication Date



World Journal of Engineering






5p. (p. 363-367)





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