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The Parkinson’s Disease-Associated Protein DJ-1 Protects Dictyostelium Cells from AMPK-Dependent Outcomes of Oxidative Stress

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posted on 06.09.2021, 05:57 by Suwei Chen, Sarah AnnesleySarah Annesley, Rasha AF Jasim, Paul FisherPaul Fisher
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In Dictyostelium discoideum, strains with mitochondrial dysfunction present consistent, AMPK-dependent phenotypes. This provides an opportunity to investigate if the loss of function of specific PD-associated genes produces cellular pathology by causing mitochondrial dysfunction with AMPK-mediated consequences. DJ-1 is a PD-associated, cytosolic protein with a conserved oxidizable cysteine residue that is important for the protein’s ability to protect cells from the pathological consequences of oxidative stress. Dictyostelium DJ-1 (encoded by the gene deeJ) is located in the cytosol from where it indirectly inhibits mitochondrial respiration and also exerts a positive, nonmitochondrial role in endocytosis (particularly phagocytosis). Its loss in unstressed cells impairs endocytosis and causes correspondingly slower growth, while also stimulating mitochondrial respiration. We report here that oxidative stress in Dictyostelium cells inhibits mitochondrial respiration and impairs phagocytosis in an AMPK-dependent manner. This adds to the separate impairment of phagocytosis caused by DJ-1 knockdown. Oxidative stress also combines with DJ-1 loss in an AMPK-dependent manner to impair or exacerbate defects in phototaxis, morphogenesis and growth. It thereby phenocopies mitochondrial dysfunction. These results support a model in which the oxidized but not the reduced form of DJ-1 inhibits AMPK in the cytosol, thereby protecting cells from the adverse consequences of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting AMPK hyperactivity.

History

Publication Date

23/07/2021

Journal

Cells

Volume

10

Issue

8

Article Number

1874

Pagination

23p.

Publisher

MDPI

ISSN

2073-4409

Rights Statement

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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