La Trobe
1206511_Keenan,S_2022.pdf (1.37 MB)
Download file

The Effects of Intermittent Fasting and Continuous Energy Restriction with Exercise on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers, Dietary Compliance, and Perceived Hunger and Mood: Secondary Outcomes of a Randomised, Controlled Trial

Download (1.37 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2022-10-11, 00:51 authored by Stephen KeenanStephen Keenan, MB Cooke, WS Chen, S Wu, Regina BelskiRegina Belski
(1) Background: Excess weight in the form of adiposity plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. Lifestyle modifications that incorporate continuous energy restriction (CER) are effective at inducing weight loss and reductions in adiposity; however, prescribing daily CER results in poor long-term adherence. Over the past decade, intermittent fasting (IF) has emerged as a promising alternative to CER that may promote increased compliance and/or improvements in cardiometabolic health parameters independent of weight loss. (2) Methods: This paper presents a secondary analysis of data from a 12-week intervention investigating the effects of a twice-weekly fast (5:2 IF; IFT group) and CER (CERT group) when combined with resistance exercise in 34 healthy participants (17 males and 17 females, mean BMI: 27.0 kg/m2, mean age: 23.9 years). Specifically, changes in cardiometabolic blood markers and ratings of hunger, mood, energy and compliance within and between groups were analysed. Dietary prescriptions were hypoenergetic and matched for energy and protein intake. (3) Results: Both dietary groups experienced reductions in total cholesterol (TC; mean reduction, 7.8%; p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; mean reduction, 11.1%; p < 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mean reduction 2.6%, p = 0.049) over the 12 weeks. Reductions in TC and LDL-C were greater in the IFT group after adjustment for baseline levels and change in weight. No significant changes in markers of glucose regulation were observed. Both groups maintained high levels of dietary compliance (~80%) and reported low levels of hunger over the course of the intervention period. (4) Conclusions: Secondary data analysis revealed that when combined with resistance training, both dietary patterns improved blood lipids, with greater reductions observed in the IFT group. High levels of compliance and low reported levels of hunger throughout the intervention period suggest both diets are well tolerated in the short-to-medium term.


SK was supported by a student scholarship from Swinburne University.


Publication Date








Article Number





Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute



Rights Statement

© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

Usage metrics

    Journal Articles


    No categories selected