Ten-year prediction model for post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction and early detection of COPD: Development and validation in two middle-aged population-based cohorts
journal contributionposted on 04.01.2022, 01:16 by JL Perret, Donato VicendeseDonato Vicendese, K Simons, DL Jarvis, AJ Lowe, CJ Lodge, DS Bui, D Tan, JA Burgess, Bircan ErbasBircan Erbas, A Bickerstaffe, K Hancock, BR Thompson, GS Hamilton, R Adams, GP Benke, PS Thomas, P Frith, CF Mcdonald, T Blakely, MJ Abramson, EH Walters, C Minelli, SC Dharmage
Authors listed are on behalf of the TAHS and ECRHS Investigator Groups.
Background: Classifying individuals at high chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-risk creates opportunities for early COPD detection and active intervention.
Objective: To develop and validate a statistical model to predict 10-year probabilities of COPD defined by post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (post-BD-AO; forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity<5th percentile).
Setting: General Caucasian populations from Australia and Europe, 10 and 27 centres, respectively.
Participants: For the development cohort, questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms, smoking, asthma, occupation and participant sex were from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) participants at age 41-45 years (n=5729) who did not have self-reported COPD/emphysema at baseline but had post-BD spirometry and smoking status at age 51-55 years (n=2407). The validation cohort comprised participants from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) II and III (n=5970), restricted to those of age 40-49 and 50-59 with complete questionnaire and spirometry/smoking data, respectively (n=1407).
Statistical method: Risk-prediction models were developed using randomForest then externally validated.
Results: Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ROC) of the final model was 80.8% (95% CI 80.0% to 81.6%), sensitivity 80.3% (77.7% to 82.9%), specificity 69.1% (68.7% to 69.5%), positive predictive value (PPV) 11.1% (10.3% to 11.9%) and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.7% (98.5% to 98.9%). The external validation was fair (AUC ROC 75.6%), with the PPV increasing to 17.9% and NPV still 97.5% for adults aged 40-49 years with ≥1 respiratory symptom. To illustrate the model output using hypothetical case scenarios, a 43-year-old female unskilled worker who smoked 20 cigarettes/day for 30 years had a 27% predicted probability for post-BD-AO at age 53 if she continued to smoke. The predicted risk was 42% if she had coexistent active asthma, but only 4.5% if she had quit after age 43.
Conclusion: This novel and validated risk-prediction model could identify adults aged in their 40s at high 10-year COPD-risk in the general population with potential to facilitate active monitoring/intervention in predicted 'COPD cases' at a much earlier age.