Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community
journal contributionposted on 23.06.2021, 02:14 by Therese M Kearns, Bart J Currie, Allen C Cheng, James McCarthy, Jonathan R Carapetis, Deborah C Holt, Wendy Page, Jennifer Shield, Roslyn Gundjirryirr, Eddie Mulholland, Linda Ward, Ross M Andrews
Background: Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35–60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Methods: Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10–42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus. Findings: We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants) at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818) at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%), falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297) to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157) at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47�seline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any self-reported clinical symptoms. Clinical symptoms ascertained on the day of treatment and 24–72 hrs after, did not identify any adverse events. Significance: Two community ivermectin MDAs delivered 12 months apart by trained Aboriginal researchers in collaboration with non-Indigenous researchers resulted in a sustained and significant reduction in Strongyloides seroprevalence over 18 months. Similar reductions were seen in the baseline cohort and new entrants.
JournalPLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Pagination19p. (p. 1-19)
PublisherPublic Library of Science
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Science & TechnologyLife Sciences & BiomedicineInfectious DiseasesParasitologyTropical MedicineSTERCORALIS INFECTIONHELMINTH INFECTIONSDIAGNOSISALBENDAZOLEMORBIDITYPEOPLESTRIALAnimalsHumansStrongyloidesStrongyloidiasisIvermectinImmunoglobulin GAntibodies, HelminthAntiparasitic AgentsSeroepidemiologic StudiesAge DistributionPregnancyAdolescentAdultMiddle AgedChildChild, PreschoolInfantOceanic Ancestry GroupAustraliaFemaleYoung Adult