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Shot-to-shot flat-field correction at X-ray free-electron lasers

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-05-09, 06:40 authored by K Buakor, Y Zhang, Š Birnšteinova, V Bellucci, T Sato, H Kirkwood, Adrian MancusoAdrian Mancuso, P Vagovic, P Villanueva-Perez
X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) provide high-brilliance pulses, which offer unique opportunities for coherent X-ray imaging techniques, such as in-line holography. One of the fundamental steps to process in-line holographic data is flat-field correction, which mitigates imaging artifacts and, in turn, enables phase reconstructions. However, conventional flat-field correction approaches cannot correct single XFEL pulses due to the stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the mechanism responsible for the high brilliance of XFELs. Here, we demonstrate on simulated and megahertz imaging data, measured at the European XFEL, the possibility of overcoming such a limitation by using two different methods based on principal component analysis and deep learning. These methods retrieve flat-field corrected images from individual frames by separating the sample and flat-field signal contributions; thus, enabling advanced phase-retrieval reconstructions. We anticipate that the proposed methods can be implemented in a real-time processing pipeline, which will enable online data analysis and phase reconstructions of coherent full-field imaging techniques such as in-line holography at XFELs.

Funding

R&D EuXFEL project (MHz microscopy at EuXFEL); Vetenskapsradet (2017-06719); Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (05K18XXA).

History

Publication Date

2022-03-28

Journal

Optics Express

Volume

30

Issue

7

Pagination

(p. 10633-10644)

Publisher

Optica Publishing Group

ISSN

1094-4087

Rights Statement

© 2022. Published by Optica Publishing Group under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI.

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