La Trobe
1160582_Shield,J_2021.pdf (1.75 MB)

Seropositivity and geographical distribution of strongyloides stercoralis in australia: A study of pathology laboratory data from 2012–2016

Download (1.75 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 03.05.2021, 06:39 by Jennifer Shield, S Braat, M Watts, G Robertson, M Beaman, J McLeod, RW Baird, J Hart, J Robson, R Lee, S McKessar, S Nicholson, J Mayer-Coverdale, BA Biggs
Background There are no national prevalence studies of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Australia, although it is known to be endemic in northern Australia and is reported in high risk groups such as immigrants and returned travellers. We aimed to determine the seropositivity (number positive per 100,000 of population and percent positive of those tested) and geographical distribution of S. stercoralis by using data from pathology laboratories. Methodology We contacted all seven Australian laboratories that undertake Strongyloides serological (ELISA antibody) testing to request de-identified data from 2012–2016 inclusive. Six responded. One provided positive data only. The number of people positive, number negative and number tested per 100,000 of population (Australian Bureau of Statistics data) were calculated including for each state/territory, each Australian Bureau of Statistics Statistical Area Level 3 (region), and each suburb/town/community/locality. The data was summarized and expressed as maps of Australia and Greater Capital Cities. Principal findings We obtained data for 81,777 people who underwent serological testing for Strongyloides infection, 631 of whom were from a laboratory that provided positive data only. Overall, 32 (95% CI: 31, 33) people per 100,000 of population were seropositive, ranging between 23/ 100,000 (95% CI: 19, 29) (Tasmania) and 489/100,000 population (95%CI: 462, 517) (Northern Territory). Positive cases were detected across all states and territories, with the highest (260-996/100,000 and 17–40% of those tested) in regions across northern Australia, north-east New South Wales and north-west South Australia. Some regions in Greater Capital Cities also had a high seropositivity (112-188/100,000 and 17–20% of those tested). Relatively more males than females tested positive. Relatively more adults than children tested positive. Children were under-represented in the data. Conclusions/Significance The study confirms that substantial numbers of S. stercoralis infections occur in Australia and provides data to inform public health planning.

Funding

This work is dedicated to the memory of the late Emeritus Professor Rick Speare whose work will have a lasting impact on public health and the control of strongyloidiasis in Australia. We thank the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community for their support for this project. We thank Jennifer MacLachlan for the suggestion to analyse the data by ABS SA3 regions and to use Tableau software for the maps. We acknowledge Strongyloides Australia Inc. formerly the National Strongyloides Working Group for their support of this project.

History

Publication Date

09/03/2021

Journal

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Volume

15

Issue

3

Article Number

e0009160

Pagination

20pp.

Publisher

PLOS

ISSN

1935-2727

Rights Statement

The Author reserves all moral rights over the deposited text and must be credited if any re-use occurs. Documents deposited in OPAL are the Open Access versions of outputs published elsewhere. Changes resulting from the publishing process may therefore not be reflected in this document. The final published version may be obtained via the publisher’s DOI. Please note that additional copyright and access restrictions may apply to the published version.