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Randomized controlled trial of a family-oriented self-management program to improve self-efficacy, glycemic control and quality of life among Thai individuals with Type 2 diabetes

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posted on 2022-04-08, 04:26 authored by N Wichit, George MnatzaganianGeorge Mnatzaganian, M Courtney, P Schulz, M Johnson
Aims We evaluated a theoretically-derived family-oriented intervention aimed to improve self-efficacy, self-management, glycemic control and quality of life in individuals living with Type 2 diabetes in Thailand. Methods In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 140 volunteer individuals with Type 2 diabetes, recruited from a diabetes clinic in rural Thailand, were randomly allocated to intervention and control arms. Those in the intervention arm received routine care plus a family-oriented program that included education classes, group discussions, a home visit, and a telephone follow-up while the control arm only received routine care. Improvement in outcomes over time (baseline, Week 3, and Week 13 following intervention) was evaluated using Generalized Estimating Equations multivariable analyses. Results Except for age, no between-group significant differences were observed in all other baseline characteristics. Diabetes self-efficacy, self-management, and quality of life improved in the intervention arm but no improvement was observed in the controls. In the risk-adjusted multivariable models, compared to the controls, the intervention arm had significantly better self-efficacy, self-management, outcome expectations, and diabetes knowledge (p < 0.001, in each). Participation in the intervention increased the diabetes self-management score by 14.3 points (β = 14.3, (95% CI 10.7–17.9), p < 0.001). Self-management was better in leaner patients and in females. No between-group differences were seen in quality of life or glycemic control, however, in the risk-adjusted multivariable models, higher self-management scores were associated with significantly decreased HbA1c levels (p < 0.001) and improved patient quality of life (p < 0.05) (irrespective of group membership). Conclusions Our family-oriented program improved patients’ self-efficacy and self-management, which in turn could decrease HbA1c levels.


The authors would like to thank all participants and their family members for participating and contributing to this study. Special thanks go to Mrs. Wilaiwan Boonkumkrong at Thachang Hospital who helped with study coordination and management. This study was supported by the Australian Catholic University.


Publication Date



Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice




12p. (p. 37-48)





Rights Statement

/? 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (