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Quantification and characterization of the municipal solid waste for sustainable waste management in newly formed municipalities of Nepal

journal contribution
posted on 2021-03-31, 05:45 authored by DR Pathak, Bandita MainaliBandita Mainali, Hossam Aboel NagaHossam Aboel Naga, Michael AngoveMichael Angove, Ing KongIng Kong
© The Author(s) 2020. This study was conducted to set up a new reference line for municipal solid waste quantification and characterization in the least urbanized cities of a developing nation. A survey was run to collect baseline data from 60 new municipalities of Nepal. The study covered a sample size of 3300 households, 600 institutions and 600 commercial establishments in those municipalities. The municipalities were further stratified according to geographical location, the degree of urbanization, household expenditure and population size to assess the influence on waste generation. The results indicated that the average per capita household waste generation is 115 g day-1 while the average total municipal waste generation was estimated to be 180 g day-1 per capita.The study also revealed that size of municipal population, geographic location, household expenditure and degree of urbanization were found to have a significant influence on the unit waste generation. The larger the size of municipal population the higher the per capita household waste generation, degree of urbanization and per capita waste production. Increasing household expenditure revealed an increase in the unit waste generation. The waste categories included organic waste, plastics, paper and paper products, textiles, rubber and leather, metals, glass, and others. The results indicated that organic waste dominated the characterization (62%), followed by plastics (12%) and paper/paper products (11%).


The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study was funded by Solid Waste Management Technical Support Centre in Nepal and partly by La Trobe Asia grant, La Trobe University.


Publication Date



Waste Management and Research





Article Number

ARTN 0734242X20922588


12p. (p. 1007-1018)


SAGE Publications



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