Prediction models used in the progression of chronic kidney disease: A scoping review
Objective: To provide a review of prediction models that have been used to measure clinical or pathological progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design: Scoping review. Data sources: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and Scopus from the year 2011 to 17th February 2022. Study selection: All English written studies that are published in peer-reviewed journals in any country, that developed at least a statistical or computational model that predicted the risk of CKD progression. Data extraction: Eligible studies for full text review were assessed on the methods that were used to predict the progression of CKD. The type of information extracted included: the author(s), title of article, year of publication, study dates, study location, number of participants, study design, predicted outcomes, type of prediction model, prediction variables used, validation assessment, limitations and implications. Results: From 516 studies, 33 were included for full-text review. A qualitative analysis of the articles was compared following the extracted information. The study populations across the studies were heterogenous and data acquired by the studies were sourced from different levels and locations of healthcare systems. 31 studies implemented supervised models, and 2 studies included unsupervised models. Regardless of the model used, the predicted outcome included measurement of risk of progression towards end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) of related definitions, over given time intervals. However, there is a lack of reporting consistency on details of the development of their prediction models. Conclusions: Researchers are working towards producing an effective model to provide key insights into the progression of CKD. This review found that cox regression modelling was predominantly used among the small number of studies in the review. This made it difficult to perform a comparison between ML algorithms, more so when different validation methods were used in different cohort types. There needs to be increased investment in a more consistent and reproducible approach for future studies looking to develop risk prediction models for CKD progression.