Platycodin D suppresses type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in primary and established cell lines
journal contributionposted on 2023-05-26, 02:40 authored by M Zhang, T Du, F Long, X Yang, Y Sun, Mubing DuanMubing Duan, G Zhang, Y Liu, EM Zhou, Weisan ChenWeisan Chen, J Chen
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a continuous threat to the pork industry as it continues to cause significant economic loss worldwide. Currently, vaccination strategies provide very limited protection against PRRSV transmission. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new antiviral strategies. Platycodin D (PD) is one of the major bioactive triterpenoid saponins derived from Platycodon grandiflorum, a traditional Chinese medicine used as an expectorant for pulmonary diseases and a remedy for respiratory disorders. Here, we demonstrate that PD exhibits potent activity against PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells and primary porcine alveolar macrophages. PD exhibited broad-spectrum inhibitory activities in vitro against high pathogenic type 2 PRRSV GD-HD strain and GD-XH strain as well as classical CH-1a and VR2332 strains. PD at concentrations ranging 1–4 µM significantly inhibited PRRSV RNA synthesis, viral protein expression and progeny virus production in a dose-dependent manner. EC50 values of PD against four tested PRRSV strains infection in Marc-145 cells ranged from 0.74 to 1.76 µM. Mechanistically, PD inhibited PRRSV replication by directly interacting with virions therefore affecting multiple stages of the virus life cycle, including viral entry and progeny virus release. In addition, PD decreased PRRSV-and LPS-induced cytokine (IFN-α, IFN-β, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) production in PAMs. Altogether, our findings suggested that PD is a potent inhibitor of PPRSV infection in vitro. However, further in vivo studies are necessary to confirm PD as a potential novel and effective PPRSV inhibitor in swine.