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Plant and fungal Hepatotoxicities of cattle in Australia, with a focus on minimally understood toxins
journal contributionposted on 17.12.2020, 01:21 by EM Manthorpe, IV Jerrett, Grant Rawlin, L Woolford
Plant- and fungus-derived hepatotoxins are a major cause of disease and production losses in ruminants in Australia and around the world. Many are well studied and described in the literature; however, this is not the case for a number of hepatotoxicities with economic and animal welfare impacts, such as acute bovine liver disease (ABLD), brassica-associated liver disease (BALD) and Trema tomentosa, Argentipallium blandowskianum and Lythrum hyssopifolia toxicity. Additionally, significant overlap in the clinical presentation and pathology of these conditions can present a diagnostic challenge for veterinarians. This review summarizes the current and most recently published knowledge of common plant- and fungus-associated hepatotoxins affecting cattle in Australia, with a focus on the mechanisms of toxicity and distinguishing diagnostic features. Consolidation of the current understanding of hepatotoxic mechanisms in cattle provides insight into the potential mechanisms of lesser-known toxins, including cellular and subcellular targets and potential metabolic pathways. In the absence of specific etiological investigations, the study of epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of hepatotoxicity provides valuable insights into potential toxic mechanisms and is integral for the successful diagnosis and management of these conditions.