PDCD1 Polymorphisms May Predict Response to Anti-PD-1 Blockade in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma
journal contributionposted on 03.08.2021, 03:04 by Sagun ParakhSagun Parakh, A Musafer, S Paessler, T Witkowski, CSNLW Suen, CSA Tutuka, MS Carlino, AM Menzies, RA Scolyer, Jonathan CebonJonathan Cebon, Alexander DobrovicAlexander Dobrovic, GV Long, O Klein, Andreas BehrenAndreas Behren
A significant number of patients (pts) with metastatic melanoma do not respond to anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD1) therapies. Identifying predictive biomarkers therefore remains an urgent need. We retrospectively analyzed plasma DNA of pts with advanced melanoma treated with PD-1 antibodies, nivolumab or pembrolizumab, for five PD-1 genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): PD1.1 (rs36084323, G>A), PD1.3 (rs11568821, G>A), PD1.5 (rs2227981, C>T) PD1.6 (rs10204225, G>A) and PD1.9 (rs2227982, C>T). Clinico-pathological and treatment parameters were collected, and presence of SNPs correlated with response, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). 115 patients were identified with a median follow up of 18.7 months (range 0.26 – 52.0 months). All were Caucasian; 27% BRAF V600 mutation positive. At PD-1 antibody commencement, 36% were treatment-naïve and 52% had prior ipilimumab. The overall response rate was 43%, 19% achieving a complete response. Overall median PFS was 11.0 months (95% CI 5.4 - 17.3) and median OS was 31.1 months (95% CI 23.2 - NA). Patients with the G/G genotype had more complete responses than with A/G genotype (16.5% vs. 2.6% respectively) and the G allele of PD1.3 rs11568821 was significantly associated with a longer median PFS than the AG allele, 14.1 vs. 7.0 months compared to the A allele (p=0.04; 95% CI 0.14 – 0.94). No significant association between the remaining SNPs and responses, PFS or OS were observed. Despite limitations in sample size, this is the first study to demonstrate an association of a germline PD-1 polymorphism and PFS in response to anti-PD-1 therapy in pts with metastatic melanoma. Extrinsic factors like host germline polymorphisms should be considered with tumor intrinsic factors as predictive biomarkers for immune checkpoint regulators.