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Outcomes of neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a non-ECMO center in a middle-income country: a retrospective cohort study

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posted on 2022-10-25, 23:42 authored by LCS Lum, TM Ramanujam, YI Yik, ML Lee, SL Chuah, E Breen, AS Zainal-Abidin, S Singaravel, CR Thambidorai, JA de Bruyne, AM Nathan, S Thavagnanam, KP Eg, L Chan, Abdel-Latif MohamedAbdel-Latif Mohamed, CS Gan
Background: Most studies examining survival of neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are in high-income countries. We aimed to describe the management, survival to hospital discharge rate, and factors associated with survival of neonates with unilateral CDH in a middle-income country. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical notes of neonates with unilateral CDH admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a tertiary referral center over a 15-year period, from 2003–2017. We described the newborns’ respiratory care pathways and then compared baseline demographic, hemodynamic, and respiratory indicators between survivors and non-survivors. The primary outcome measure was survival to hospital discharge. Results: Altogether, 120 neonates were included with 43.3% (52/120) diagnosed antenatally. Stabilization occurred in 38.3% (46/120) with conventional ventilation, 13.3% (16/120) with high-frequency intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, and 22.5% (27/120) with high frequency oscillatory ventilation. Surgical repair was possible in 75.0% (90/120). The overall 30-day survival was 70.8% (85/120) and survival to hospital discharge was 66.7% (80/120). Survival to hospital discharge tended to improve over time (p > 0.05), from 56.0% to 69.5% before and after, respectively, a service reorganization. For those neonates who could be stabilized and operated on, 90.9% (80/88) survived to hospital discharge. The commonest post-operative complication was infection, occurring in 43.3%. The median survivor length of stay was 32.5 (interquartile range 18.8–58.0) days. Multiple logistic regression modelling showed vaginal delivery (odds ratio [OR] = 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.1–21.67]; p = 0.041), Apgar score ≥ 7 at 5 min (OR = 6.7; 95% CI [1.2–36.3]; p = 0.028), and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) < 50% at 24 h (OR = 89.6; 95% CI [10.6–758.6]; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with improved survival to hospital discharge. Conclusions: We report a survival to hospital discharge rate of 66.7%. Survival tended to improve over time, reflecting a greater critical volume of cases and multi-disciplinary care with early involvement of the respiratory team resulting in improved transitioning from PICU. Vaginal delivery, Apgar score ≥ 7 at 5 min, and FiO2 < 50% at 24 h increased the likelihood of survival to hospital discharge.


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BMC Pediatrics



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Springer Nature



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© The Author(s) 2022 This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

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