La Trobe
1185970_Gangloff,E_2021.pdf (6.13 MB)
Download file

Multiple Paternity in Garter Snakes With Evolutionarily Divergent Life Histories

Download (6.13 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 10.12.2021, 04:46 by Eric J Gangloff, Megan B Manes, Tonia S Schwartz, Kylie RobertKylie Robert, Natalie Huebschman, Anne M Bronikowski
Many animal species exhibit multiple paternity, defined as multiple males genetically contributing to a single female reproductive event, such as a clutch or litter. Although this phenomenon is well documented across a broad range of taxa, the underlying causes and consequences remain poorly understood. For example, it is unclear how multiple paternity correlates with life-history strategies. Furthermore, males and females may differ in mating strategies and these patterns may shift with ecological context and life-history variation. Here, we take advantage of natural life-history variation in garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) to address these questions in a robust field setting where populations have diverged along a slow-to-fast life-history continuum. We determine both female (observed) and male (using molecular markers) reproductive success in replicate populations of 2 life-history strategies. We find that despite dramatic differences in annual female reproductive output: 1) females of both life-history ecotypes average 1.5 sires per litter and equivalent proportions of multiply-sired litters, whereas 2) males from the slow-living ecotype experience greater reproductive skew and greater variance in reproductive success relative to males from the fast-living ecotype males despite having equivalent average reproductive success. Together, these results indicate strong intrasexual competition among males, particularly in the fast-paced life-history ecotype. We discuss these results in the context of competing hypotheses for multiple paternity related to population density, resource variability, and life-history strategy.


Publication Date



Journal of Heredity








Oxford University Press



Rights Statement

© The American Genetic Association, 2021 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Usage metrics