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Multi-scale topology and position feature learning and relationship-aware graph reasoning for prediction of drug-related microbes

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posted on 2024-02-20, 03:53 authored by Ping Xuan, Jing Gu, Hui CuiHui Cui, Shuai Wang, Toshiya Nakaguchi, Cheng Liu, Tiangang Zhang

MOTIVATION: The human microbiome may impact the effectiveness of drugs by modulating their activities and toxicities. Predicting candidate microbes for drugs can facilitate the exploration of the therapeutic effects of drugs. Most recent methods concentrate on constructing of the prediction models based on graph reasoning. They fail to sufficiently exploit the topology and position information, the heterogeneity of multiple types of nodes and connections, and the long-distance correlations among nodes in microbe-drug heterogeneous graph. RESULTS: We propose a new microbe-drug association prediction model, NGMDA, to encode the position and topological features of microbe (drug) nodes, and fuse the different types of features from neighbors and the whole heterogeneous graph. First, we formulate the position and topology features of microbe (drug) nodes by t-step random walks, and the features reveal the topological neighborhoods at multiple scales and the position of each node. Second, as the features of nodes are high-dimensional and sparse, we designed an embedding enhancement strategy based on supervised fully connected autoencoders to form the embeddings with representative features and the more discriminative node distributions. Third, we propose an adaptive neighbor feature fusion module, which fuses features of neighbors by the constructed position- and topology-sensitive heterogeneous graph neural networks. A novel self-attention mechanism is developed to estimate the importance of the position and topology of each neighbor to a target node. Finally, a heterogeneous graph feature fusion module is constructed to learn the long-distance correlations among the nodes in the whole heterogeneous graph by a relationship-aware graph transformer. Relationship-aware graph transformer contains the strategy for encoding the connection relationship types among the nodes, which is helpful for integrating the diverse semantics of these connections. The extensive comparison experimental results demonstrate NGMDA's superior performance over five state-of-the-art prediction methods. The ablation experiment shows the contributions of the multi-scale topology and position feature learning, the embedding enhancement strategy, the neighbor feature fusion, and the heterogeneous graph feature fusion. Case studies over three drugs further indicate that NGMDA has ability in discovering the potential drug-related microbes.


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Oxford University Press



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© The Author(s) 2024. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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