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Low dietary magnesium and overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean population: a detrimental synergy for the development of hypertension. The SUN project

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posted on 2021-03-26, 04:35 authored by LJ Dominguez, A Gea, L Ruiz-Estigarribia, C Sayón-Orea, U Fresán, M Barbagallo, M Ruiz-Canela, Miguel Martinez-Gonzalez
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Hypertension is the strongest independent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular dis-ease. We aimed to investigate the association of magnesium intake with incident hypertension in a Mediterranean population, and the potential modification of this association by body mass index BMI. We assessed 14,057 participants of the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) prospective cohort (67.0% women) initially free of hypertension. At baseline, a validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire was administered. We used Cox models adjusted for multiple socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors, and prevalent conditions present at baseline. Among a mean 9.6 years of follow-up we observed 1406 incident cases of medically diagnosed hypertension. An in-verse association in multivariable-adjusted models was observed for progressively higher magnesium intake up to 500 mg/d vs. intake < 200 mg/d, which was greater among those with a BMI > 27 kg/m2 . Lean participants with magnesium intake < 200 mg/d vs. >200 mg/d also had a higher risk of incident hypertension. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet did not modify these associations. In conclusion, dietary magnesium intake < 200 mg/d was independently associated with a higher risk of developing hypertension in a Mediterranean cohort, stronger for overweight/obese participants. Our results emphasize the importance of encouraging the consumption of magnesium-rich foods (vegetables, nuts, whole cereals, legumes) in order to prevent hypertension.


The SUN Project has received funding from the Spanish Government-Instituto de Salud Carlos III, and the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) (RD 06/0045), CIBER-OBN, Grants PI10/02658, PI10/02293, PI13/00615, PI14/01668, PI14/01798, PI14/01764, and PI17/01795. The funding sources had no role in the study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation of data, writing of the report, or the decision to submit the article for publication.


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