La Trobe
892165_Brickell,T_2020.pdf (708.11 kB)

Language contact in North Sulawesi: Preliminary observations.

Download (708.11 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2022-03-28, 23:02 authored by Timothy BrickellTimothy Brickell
Categorised as a Pidgin Derived Malay (PDM), Manado Malay (MM) is spoken throughout northern Sulawesi and on islands to the south of the southern Philippines. After originally functioning as regional lingua franca, it is now well established as the first language of up to one million people. This paper examines the language-contact situation between MM and two indigenous languages with a long presence in the region. Despite centuries of continued close contact, an examination of a range of typological features reveals minimal shared features, almost none of which have arisen through borrowing. These results corroborate multiple theories relating to language-contact outcomes, in particular the availability of different structural features for borrowing, the likely direction of any transfer, and the effect of both linguistic and non-linguistic factors on the potential for intense bilingualism.


Research conducted in North Sulawesi was initially supported by a La Trobe University Postraduate Research Scholarship (LTUPS: 2011–2015) and a Disciplinary Research Program (DRP: 2016-1) grant. Subsequent funding was obtained through an Individual Postdoctoral Fellowship (IPF #0246) from the Endangered Languages Documentation Programme (ELDP) at SOAS, University of London, as well as from the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language (CoEDL) Linkage program.


Publication Date



NUSA: Linguistic studies of languages in and around Indonesia






32p. (p. 159-190)


Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. Tokyo University of Foreign Studies



Rights Statement

Authors retain copyright over all works published in NUSA. All papers published by NUSA are made available through a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives license. A plain English description of the license can be viewed here The full legal text appears here Creative Commons licenses enable the legal sharing and reuse of cultural, educational, and scientific works and have been adopted by a growing number of scientists and scholars.

Usage metrics

    Journal Articles


    No categories selected