Inhibition of proanthocyanidin A2 on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in vitro
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a widely prevalent and endemic swine pathogen that causes significant economic losses for the global pig industry annually. Currently, the most prevalent strategy for PRRSV control remains the prevention of virus transmission, with highly effective therapeutic agents and vaccines still lacking. Proanthocyanidin A2 (PA2) belongs to the family of tea polyphenols, which have been reported to exhibit a range of biological activities including anti-oxidative, cardio-pro-tective, anti-tumoural, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro as well as in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that PA2 exhibits potent anti-viral activity against PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells. Similar inhibitory effects were also found in porcine alveolar macrophages, the primary target cell type of PRRSV infection in pigs in vivo. For traditional type II PRRSV CH-1a strain and high pathogenic GD-XH strain and GD-HD strain, PA2 exhibited broad-spectrum and comparable inhibitory activities in vitro with EC50 ranging from 2.2 to 3.2 μg/ml. Treatment of PRRSV-infected Marc-145 cells with PA2 significantly inhibited viral RNA synthesis, viral protein expression and progeny virus production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PA2 treatment reduced gene expressions of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-α, IL-1β and IL-6) induced by PRRSV infection in PAMs. Mechanistically, PA2 inhibited PRRSV replication by targeting multiple pathways including blockade of viral entry and progeny virus release. Altogether, our findings suggest that PA2 has the potential to serve as a novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against PRRSV infection.