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Implementation of sustainable complex interventions in health care services: the triple C model

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journal contribution
posted on 2021-04-12, 04:55 authored by Hanan KhalilHanan Khalil, K Kynoch
Background: The changing and evolving healthcare environment means organisations are under increasing pressure to deliver value-based, high quality care to patients through enabling access, reducing costs and improving outcomes. These factors result in an increased pressure to deliver efficient and beneficial interventions to improve patient care and support sustainability beyond the scope of the implementation of such interventions. Additionally, the literature highlights the importance of coordination, cooperation and working together across areas is critical to achieving implementation success. This paper discusses the development of a triple C model for implementation that supports sustainability of complex interventions in health care services. Methods: In order to develop the proposed implementation model, we adapted the formal tradition of theory building that is described in sociology. Firstly, we conducted a review of the literature on complex interventions and the available implementation models used to embed these interventions to identify the key aspects relating to successful implementation. Secondly, we devised a framework that encompassed these findings into a simple and workable model that can be easily embedded into everyday practice. This proposed model uses clear, systemic explanation, adds to the current knowledge in this area and is fit for purpose, providing healthcare workers with a simple easy-to-follow framework to embed practice change. Results: A three-stage implementation model was devised based on the findings of the literature and named the Triple C model (Consultation, Collaboration and Consolidation). The three stages are interconnected and overlap to support sustainability is considered at all levels of the project ensuring its greater success. This model considers the sustainability within any implementation project. Sustainability of interventions are a key consideration for continuous and successful change in any health care organisation. A set of criteria were developed for each of the three stages to support adaptability and sustainment of interventions are maintained throughout the life of the intervention. Conclusion: Ensuring sustainability of interventions requires continuing effort and embedding the need for sustainability throughout all stages of an implementation project. The Triple C model offers a new approach for healthcare clinicians to support sustainability of organizational change.


Publication Date



BMC Health Services Research





Article Number

ARTN 143







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The Author reserves all moral rights over the deposited text and must be credited if any re-use occurs. Documents deposited in OPAL are the Open Access versions of outputs published elsewhere. Changes resulting from the publishing process may therefore not be reflected in this document. The final published version may be obtained via the publisher’s DOI. Please note that additional copyright and access restrictions may apply to the published version.

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