Impact of starting BMI and degree of weight loss on changes in appetite-regulating hormones during diet-induced weight loss
journal contributionposted on 04.05.2022, 06:12 by KAL Edwards, Luke PrendergastLuke Prendergast, S Kalfas, P Sumithran, J Proietto
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the hormone changes following weight loss are proportional to the degree of weight loss and to starting BMI. Methods: A very low-energy diet was used to achieve 15% weight loss. Fasting and postprandial gut hormones and leptin were measured during a meal test at baseline and at 5% (1%), 10% (2%), and 15% (2.5%) weight loss. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyze hormone changes. Results: From baseline to 5% weight loss, decreases were seen in fasting concentrations of leptin (−8.25 ng/mL; p < 0.001), amylin (−21.3 pg/mL; p < 0.001), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (−59.55 pg/mL; p < 0.001). There was a small further reduction in leptin between 5% and 15% weight loss (−1.88 ng/mL; p = 0.019) but not in glucagon-like peptide 1 and amylin. Fasting ghrelin showed a significant increase at 10% weight loss (41.64 pg/mL; p = 0.002), with a nonsignificant increase from 10% to 15% loss (26.03 pg/mL; p = 0.065). Postprandial changes in hormone levels were variable. There was no correlation between baseline weight and the degree of hormone changes. Conclusions: The majority of changes in fasting gut hormones and leptin occurred in early weight loss, with minor further changes up to 15% weight loss. Starting weight did not affect the degree of hormone change.