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Growth of Caenorhabditis elegans in defined media is dependent on presence of particulate matter

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posted on 2023-04-04, 00:53 authored by Matthew FlavelMatthew Flavel, Adam MechlerAdam Mechler, Mahdi Shahmiri, Elizabeth MathewsElizabeth Mathews, Ashley FranksAshley Franks, Weisan ChenWeisan Chen, Damien Zanker, Bo Xian, S Gao, J Luo, Surafel TegegneSurafel Tegegne, C Doneski, Markandeya JoisMarkandeya Jois
Caenorhabditis elegans are typically cultured in a monoxenic medium consisting of live bacteria. However, this introduces a secondary organism to experiments, and restricts the manipulation of the nutritional environment. Due to the intricate link between genes and environment, greater control and understanding of nutritional factors are required to push the C. elegans field into new areas. For decades, attempts to develop a chemically defined, axenic medium as an alternative for culturing C. elegans have been made. However, the mechanism by which the filter feeder C. elegans obtains nutrients from these liquid media is not known. Using a fluorescence-activated cell sorting based approach, we demonstrate growth in all past axenic C. elegans media to be dependent on the presence of previously unknown particles. This particle requirement of C. elegans led to development of liposome-based, nanoparticle culturing that allows full control of nutrients delivered to C. elegans.


Publication Date



G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics






9p. (p. 567-575)


Genetics Society of America



Rights Statement

© 2018 Flavel et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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