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Geographical Disparities in Pooled Stroke Incidence and Case Fatality in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macao: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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posted on 2022-09-16, 00:01 authored by Fan HeFan He, Irene BlackberryIrene Blackberry, L Yao, H Xie, George MnatzaganianGeorge Mnatzaganian
Background: Geographical variations in stroke incidence and case fatality in China have been reported. Nonetheless, pooled estimates in major Chinese regions are unknown. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to investigate pooled estimates of incidence and short-term case fatality of stroke in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macao. Methods: Longitudinal studies published in English and indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science, or in Chinese and indexed in SinoMed and CQVIP will be targeted. Articles reporting on adults living in China who experience first-ever stroke or die within 1 year from newly onset stroke will be included. The 95% confidence intervals of the event will be estimated using the exact method based on the Poisson distribution. The log incidence rates together with their corresponding log standard errors will be meta-analyzed using DerSimonian and Laird random effects models. Pooled case fatality rates will also be estimated using a random effect model. Time trends in pooled age-standardized stroke incidence and case fatality will be estimated. The heterogeneity of the included studies will be measured using the I2 statistic and meta-regressions will be run to analyze the effect of reported covariates on found heterogeneity. Risk of bias will be examined using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Publication bias will be tested using funnel plots and Egger tests. Sensitivity analysis will be run by risk of bias. Results: This study was funded and registered in 2020. The systematic searches, study selections, and quality assessments were completed in July 2021. Data extraction and analysis and manuscript writing are scheduled to be completed by December 2021. Conclusions: This will be the first study to provide regional differences in pooled estimates of stroke incidence with case fatality in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macao. This study will assist in addressing inequalities in stroke care across China.


This study was supported by the 2020 China Studies Seed-funding Research Grant Scheme from La Trobe University, Australia.


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JMIR Research Protocols






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Rights Statement

© Fan He, Irene Blackberry, Liqing Yao, Haiyan Xie, George Mnatzaganian. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (, 18.01.2022. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, andreproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Research Protocols, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

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