Flash Electroretinography as a Measure of Retinal Function in Myopia and Hyperopia: A Systematic Review
journal contributionposted on 2023-03-23, 04:52 authored by Sania Zahra, Melanie MurphyMelanie Murphy, Sheila CrewtherSheila Crewther, Nina RiddellNina Riddell
Refractive errors (myopia and hyperopia) are the most common visual disorders and are severe risk factors for secondary ocular pathologies. The development of refractive errors has been shown to be associated with changes in ocular axial length, suggested to be induced by outer retinal elements. Thus, the present study systematically reviewed the literature examining retinal function as assessed using global flash electroretinograms (gfERGs) in human clinical refractive error populations. Electronic database searching via Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Psych INFO, and CINAHL retrieved 981 unique records (last searched on the 29 May 2022). Single case studies, samples with ocular comorbidities, drug trials, and reviews were excluded. Demographic characteristics, refractive state, gfERG protocol details, and waveform characteristics were extracted for the eight studies that met the inclusion criteria for the review and were judged to have acceptable risk of bias using the OHAT tool (total N = 552 participants; age 7 to 50). Study synthesis suggests that myopia in humans involves attenuation of gfERG photoreceptor (a-wave) and bipolar cell (b-wave) function, consistent with the animal literature. Meaningful interpretation of the overall findings for hyperopia was limited by inconsistent reporting, highlighting the need for future studies to report key aspects of gfERG research design and outcomes more consistently for myopic and hyperopic refractive errors.