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First Report of Grapevine Rupestris Vein Feathering Virus in Grapevine in Australia
journal contributionposted on 18.01.2021, 03:12 by Q Wu, MA Kehoe, WM Kinoti, CP Wang, A Rinaldo, S Tyerman, N Habili, Fiona ConstableFiona Constable
Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus (GRVFV; tentative genus Marafivirus; family Tymoviridae ) was first detected from a Greek grapevine (Vitis vinifera), with asteroid mosaic-like symptoms (El Beaino et al. 2001; Ghanem-Sabanadzovic et al. 2003) and was also infected with grapevine fleck virus. GRVFV has been detected in the United States, South Africa, Canada, Spain, China, New Zealand, Brazil, Germany, Korea, Slovakia, Hungary and Pakistan (Cho et al. 2018; Mahmood et al. 2019).Transmission vectors are currently unknown. In 2018, nine grapevine samples were collected between May to July in South Australia (SA) and Western Australia (WA) (Table S1), were analysed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to characterise grapevine viruses in Australian vineyards. Total RNA or double stranded RNA was extracted from grapevine canes using RNeasy 96 QIAcube HT kit (Qiagen) with MacKenzie buffer (MacKenzie et al. 1997) or using CF-11 (Balijja et al. 2008). Libraries were prepared using the NEBNext® Ultra II RNA library Prep Kit (NEB) or TruSeq® Stranded mRNA Prep kit (Illumina) with Ribo-Zero®gold plant kit for ribosomal depletion (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Libraries were sequenced using Illumina Miseq (SA) or Hiseq (WA) technology with 2x300 (SA) or 2x100 (WA) paired end reads which were trimmed using Trim Galore! (0.4.0) or BBmap (38.20), respectively. De novo assembly, using the SPAdes (version 3.12.0) genome assembler with default settings, resulted in twelve near full length GRVFV genomes (6713-6737nt), eight sequences from the WA samples and four from the SA samples. WA samples 171 and 178 and SA sample BV each had two distinct GRVFV molecular variants. Variants 171-1 and 171-2 (GenBank accessions MT084811, MT084812) from sample 171 shared 83.39% nucleotide (nt) identity. Variants 178-1 and 178-2 (MT084813, MT084814) from sample 178 shared 83.54% nt identity. Variants BV6799 and BV8822 (MN974274, MN974275) from sample BV shared 82.85% nt identity. Only one GRVFV sequence was obtained from all other samples. The genome of SA isolate LC1 (MN974273) was confirmed by RT-PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of overlapping genome regions. Tissue from the infected LC1 isolate has been deposited into the Victorian plant pathogen reference collection (VPRI accession No. 43698). When the genomes of all Australian isolates were compared, they had 78.94% to 94.37 % nt identity with each other. The SA isolates LC1, BV8822, BV6799, and SEL-L (MN974276), and the WA isolates 172 (MT084807), 179 (MT084808), 180 (MT084809), and 182 (MT084810) were most closely related to the Swiss isolate CHASS (KY513702; 82.87% to 85.46% nt identity). The WA isolates 171-1, 171-2, 178-1 and 178-2 were most closely related to the New Zealand isolate Ch8021 (MF000325; 83.21% to 93.87%). Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1), GLRaV-3, GLRaV-4 (strain 6 and 9), grapevine virus A, grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus, grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 and hop stunt viroid were also identified in the sequencing data. This is the first report of GRVFV in Australia. All WA samples were collected during dormancy and symptoms were not observed. Sample LC1 from SA had Shiraz disease, the other SA samples were asymptomatic, and none had asteroid mosaic-like symptoms. Further research is required to determine its distribution and association with disease in Australia.