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Factors associated with glycemic control in type 1 diabetes patients in China.pdf (394.57 kB)

Factors associated with glycemic control in type 1 diabetes patients in China: A cross-sectional study

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journal contribution
posted on 2021-02-05, 00:25 authored by L Huo, W Deng, Jonathan ShawJonathan Shaw, DJ Magliano, P Zhang, HC McGuire, K Kissimova-Skarbek, D Whiting, L Ji
© 2020 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd Aims/Introduction: Glycemic control in type 1 diabetes can be challenging, and is influenced by many factors. This study aimed to investigate glycemic control and its associated factors in Chinese people with type 1 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 779 participants with type 1 diabetes selected from hospital records review, outpatient clinics and inpatient wards. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, medical records and venous blood samples. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine factors associated with glycemic control. Results: Among 779 participants, 49.2% were male. The median age was 24 years (interquartile range 14–36 years). The median age at diagnosis of diabetes was 17 years (interquartile range 10–28 years) and the median duration of diabetes was 4 years (interquartile range 1–8 years). The mean ± standard deviation hemoglobin A1c was 9.1 ± 2.5%. Nearly 80% of participants had inadequate glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c ≥7.0%). Multivariable analysis showed that age at diagnosis of diabetes ≤20 years, living in a rural location, low household income, low intake of fruit and vegetables, low level of physical activity, low adherence to insulin, and low utilization of insulin pump were independent risk factors for poor glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c ≥9.0%). Conclusions: Inadequate glycaemic control is common among people with type 1 diabetes in China. Efforts should be made to control the modifiable risk factors, which include low intake of fruit and vegetables, low level of physical activity, and low adherence to insulin for the improvement of glycemic control. Appropriate use of insulin pump among type 1 diabetes should be encouraged.


We are grateful to all those involved in the recruitment of participants, implementation of the study and collection of data. We are also grateful to Sanofi Diabetes for their unrestricted grant for the 3C study. This study was supported by Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission (No. Z161100000116091).


Publication Date



Journal of Diabetes Investigation






8p. (p. 1575-1582)





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