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Extracellular vesicle isolation and characterization: toward clinical application

journal contribution
posted on 2021-03-12, 06:57 authored by Rong Xu, David GreeningDavid Greening, H-J Zhu, N Takahashi, Richard SimpsonRichard Simpson
Two broad categories of extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and shed microvesicles (sMVs), which differ in size distribution as well as protein and RNA profiles, have been described. EVs are known to play key roles in cell-cell communication, acting proximally as well as systemically. This Review discusses the nature of EV subtypes, strategies for isolating EVs from both cell-culture media and body fluids, and procedures for quantifying EVs. We also discuss proteins selectively enriched in exosomes and sMVs that have the potential for use as markers to discriminate between EV subtypes, as well as various applications of EVs in clinical diagnosis.


The authors were supported, in part, by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia: project grants no. 1057741 (to R.J. Simpson and D.W. Greening) and no. 433619 (to H.J. Zhu) and a La Trobe University Leadership RFA grant (to D.W. Greening). This work was also supported by Operational Infrastructure Support Program funding provided by the Victorian Government. R. Xu is supported by a La Trobe University Post Graduate Fellowship. The authors acknowledge the input of Donna Dorow for proofreading this Review.


Publication Date



Journal of Clinical Investigation






11p. (p. 1152-1162)


American Society for Clinical Investigation



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