La Trobe
1614183_Knappett,J_2024.pdf (726.4 kB)

Evaluation of the X-ray/EUV Nanolithography Facility at AS through wavefront propagation simulations

Download (726.4 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2024-05-30, 06:42 authored by Jerome KnappettJerome Knappett, Blair HaydonBlair Haydon, Bruce CC Cowie, Cameron KewishCameron Kewish, Grant van RiessenGrant van Riessen
Synchrotron light sources can provide the required spatial coherence, stability and control to support the development of advanced lithography at the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray wavelengths that are relevant to current and future fabricating technologies. Here an evaluation of the optical performance of the soft X-ray (SXR) beamline of the Australian Synchrotron (AS) and its suitability for developing interference lithography using radiation in the 91.8 eV (13.5 nm) to 300 eV (4.13 nm) range are presented. A comprehensive physical optics model of the APPLE-II undulator source and SXR beamline was constructed to simulate the properties of the illumination at the proposed location of a photomask, as a function of photon energy, collimation and monochromator parameters. The model is validated using a combination of experimental measurements of the photon intensity distribution of the undulator harmonics. It is shown that the undulator harmonics intensity ratio can be accurately measured using an imaging detector and controlled using beamline optics. Finally, the photomask geometric constraints and achievable performance for the limiting case of fully spatially coherent illumination are evaluated.


This research was supported by the Australian Research Council (ARC) Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities (LIEF) scheme, which funded part of the equipment used in this work. Two of the authors (JBMK, BH) were supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship, and one (JBMK) by an AINSE Ltd Postgraduate Research Award (PGRA).


Publication Date



Journal of Synchrotron Radiation






485 - 492


International Union of Crystallography/Wiley



Rights Statement

© The Authors 2024 Published under a CC BY 4.0 licence