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Enhancing Ultimate Bearing Capacity Prediction of Cohesionless Soils Beneath Shallow Foundations with Grey Box and Hybrid AI Models

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posted on 2023-11-27, 23:13 authored by K Kiany, Abolfazl BaghbaniAbolfazl Baghbani, Hossam Aboel NagaHossam Aboel Naga, H Baghbani, M Arabani, MM Shalchian
This study examines the potential of the soft computing technique, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR), genetic programming (GP), classification and regression trees (CART) and GA-ENN (genetic algorithm-emotional neuron network), to predict the ultimate bearing capacity (UBC) of cohesionless soils beneath shallow foundations. For the first time, two grey-box AI models, GP and CART, and one hybrid AI model, GA-ENN, were used in the literature to predict UBC. The inputs of the model are the width of footing (B), depth of footing (D), footing geometry (ratio of length to width, L/B), unit weight of sand (γd or γ′), and internal friction angle (ϕ). The results of the present model were compared with those obtained via two theoretical approaches and one AI approach reported in the literature. The statistical evaluation of results shows that the presently applied paradigm is better than the theoretical approaches and is competing well for the prediction of qu. This study shows that the developed AI models are a robust model for the qu prediction of shallow foundations on cohesionless soil. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out to determine the effect of each input parameter. The findings showed that the width and depth of the foundation and unit weight of soil (γd or γ′) played the most significant roles, while the internal friction angle and L/B showed less importance in predicting qu.


This research is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship for the second author (A.B.).


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© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (