Enhanced knowledge inversed attitude of oral cancer risk habit associated with sociocultural: A quantitative and qualitative pilot study
Aim: In 2023, the global incidence of oral cancer reached 54,540 new cases, with risk factors including smoking (S), alcohol consumption (A), and betel quid chewing (BQC). The knowledge and attitudes about these risk factors impact this practice, particularly in communities that follow local traditions. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitude regarding risk factors for oral cancer on Flores Island, East Indonesia. Materials and Methods: This was an analytical observational study with a cross-sectional design using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Structured questionnaires and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with the community, local government, and dentists to obtain data; quantitative analysis was performed using regression; and qualitative analysis was performed using themes. Results: Of 542 participants (men 66.42 %; women 33.57 %), 64.4% had a high level of knowledge and a low level of attitude for S = 62.5%, A = 66.7%, and BQC = 50.0%. There was a correlation between knowledge and attitudes about S (P = 0.009) and BQC (P = 0.011). The FGDs yielded 14 subjects (five men and nine women) with three themes of knowledge (betel nut ingredients, causes of cancer, and impacts of habits) and three themes of attitude (type of habit, desire to stop, and oral cancer prevention programs). On the basis of FGDs, most of the subjects already knew the causes of oral cancer, but the desire to stop and prevent oral cancer was difficult. Conclusion: The population on Flores Island has a high level of knowledge but a low level of attitude. Nevertheless, it is difficult to minimize or eliminate oral cancer-risk behaviors due to their cultural and socioeconomic conditions.