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Enabling Real-Time Quality-of-Service and Fine-Grained Aggregation for Wireless TSN

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journal contribution
posted on 21.06.2022, 06:27 authored by Litianyi Zhang, Yifan Gu, Rui Wang, Kan YuKan Yu, Zhibo Pang, Yonghui Li, Branka Vucetic
Wireless Time-Sensitive Networking (WTSN) has emerged as a promising technology for Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications. To meet the latency requirements of WTSN, wireless local area network (WLAN) such as IEEE 802.11 protocol with the time division multiple access (TDMA) mechanism is shown to be a practical solution. In this paper, we propose the RT-WiFiQA protocol with two novel schemes to improve the latency and reliability performance: real-time quality of service (RT-QoS) and fine-grained aggregation (FGA) for TDMA-based 802.11 systems. The RT-QoS is designed to guarantee the quality-of-service requirements of different traffic and to support the FGA mechanism. The FGA mechanism aggregates frames for different stations to reduce the physical layer transmission overhead. The trade-off between the reliability and FGA packet size is analyzed with numerical results. Specifically, we derive a critical threshold such that the FGA can achieve higher reliability when the aggregated packet size is smaller than the critical threshold. Otherwise, the non-aggregation scheme outperforms the FGA scheme. Extensive experiments are conducted on the commercial off-the-shelf 802.11 interface. The experiment results show that compared with the existing TDMA-based 802.11 system, the developed RT-WiFiQA protocol can achieve deterministic bounded real-time latency and greatly improves the reliability performance.


This research is partly funded by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) through the project APR20-0023.


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Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)



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© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.