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Effects of Caffeine on Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis and Metabolic Homeostasis: A Review

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journal contribution
posted on 16.03.2021, 02:30 by John Van Schaik, Christine Kettle, Rodney Green, Helen Irving, JA Rathner
© Copyright © 2021 Van Schaik, Kettle, Green, Irving and Rathner. The impact of brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism on understanding energy balance in humans is a relatively new and exciting field of research. The pathogenesis of obesity can be largely explained by an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure, but the underlying mechanisms are far more complex. Traditional non-selective sympathetic activators have been used to artificially elevate energy utilization, or suppress appetite, however undesirable side effects are apparent with the use of these pharmacological interventions. Understanding the role of BAT, in relation to human energy homeostasis has the potential to dramatically offset the energy imbalance associated with obesity. This review discusses paradoxical effects of caffeine on peripheral adenosine receptors and the possible role of adenosine in increasing metabolism is highlighted, with consideration to the potential of central rather than peripheral mechanisms for caffeine mediated BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Research on the complex physiology of adipose tissue, the embryonic lineage and function of the different types of adipocytes is summarized. In addition, the effect of BAT on overall human metabolism and the extent of the associated increase in energy expenditure are discussed. The controversy surrounding the primary β-adrenoceptor involved in human BAT activation is examined, and suggestions as to the lack of translational findings from animal to human physiology and human in vitro to in vivo models are provided. This review compares and distinguishes human and rodent BAT effects, thus developing an understanding of human BAT thermogenesis to aid lifestyle interventions targeting obesity and metabolic syndrome. The focus of this review is on the effect of BAT thermogenesis on overall metabolism, and the potential therapeutic effects of caffeine in increasing metabolism via its effects on BAT.

History

Publication Date

04/02/2021

Journal

Frontiers in Neuroscience

Volume

15

Pagination

(p. 621356)

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA

ISSN

1662-4548

Rights Statement

The Author reserves all moral rights over the deposited text and must be credited if any re-use occurs. Documents deposited in OPAL are the Open Access versions of outputs published elsewhere. Changes resulting from the publishing process may therefore not be reflected in this document. The final published version may be obtained via the publisher’s DOI. Please note that additional copyright and access restrictions may apply to the published version.

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