Effect of Vitamin D-Enriched Gouda-Type Cheese Consumption on Biochemical Markers of Bone Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women in Greece
journal contributionposted on 2021-09-20, 00:12 authored by George MoschonisGeorge Moschonis, Ellen GHM van den Heuvel, Christina Mavrogianni, Yannis Manios
Considering the role of bone metabolism in understanding the pathogenesis of osteoporo-sis, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin D-enriched cheese on the serum concentrations of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) and certain bone remodeling biomarkers in postmenopausal women in Greece. In a randomised, controlled dietary intervention, 79 post-menopausal women (55–75 years old) were randomly allocated either to a control (CG: n = 39) or an intervention group (IG: n = 40), consuming 60 g of either non-enriched or vitamin D3-enriched Gouda-type cheese (5.7 µg of vitamin D3), respectively, daily and for eight weeks during the winter. The serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), PTH, bone formation (i.e., osteocal-cin, P1NP) and bone resorption (i.e., TRAP-5b) biomarkers were measured. Consumption of the vitamin D-enriched cheese led to higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations of 23.4 ± 6.39 (p = 0.022) and 13.4 ± 1.35 (p<0.001) nmol/L in vitamin D-insufficient women being at menopause for less and more than 5 years, respectively. In vitamin D-insufficient women that were less than 5 years at menopause, consumption of vitamin D-enriched cheese was also associated with lower serum PTH (Beta −0.63 ± 1.11; p < 0.001) and TRAP-5b (Beta −0.65 ± 0.23; p = 0.004) levels at follow-up, compared with the CG. The present study showed that daily intake of 5.7 µg of vitamin D through enriched cheese increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations, prevented PTH increase and reduced bone resorption in vitamin D-insufficient early postmenopausal women, thus reflecting a food-based solution for reducing osteoporosis risk in this susceptible group.