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Dynamic balance and instrumented gait variables are independent predictors of falls following stroke
journal contributionposted on 17.12.2020, 05:34 by Kelly Bower, Shamala Thilarajah, Yong-Hao Pua, Gavin Williams, Dawn Tan, Benjamin MentiplayBenjamin Mentiplay, Linda Denehy, Ross Clark
© 2019 The Author(s). Background: Falls are common following stroke and are frequently related to deficits in balance and mobility. This study aimed to investigate the predictive strength of gait and balance variables for evaluating post-stroke falls risk over 12 months following rehabilitation discharge. Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken in inpatient rehabilitation centres based in Australia and Singapore. A consecutive sample of 81 individuals (mean age 63 years; median 24 days post stroke) were assessed within one week prior to discharge. In addition to comfortable gait speed over six metres (6mWT), a depth-sensing camera (Kinect) was used to obtain fast-paced gait speed, stride length, cadence, step width, step length asymmetry, gait speed variability, and mediolateral and vertical pelvic displacement. Balance variables were the step test, timed up and go (TUG), dual-task TUG, and Wii Balance Board-derived centre of pressure velocity during static standing. Falls data were collected using monthly calendars. Results: Over 12 months, 28% of individuals fell at least once. The faller group had increased TUG time and reduced stride length, gait speed variability, mediolateral and vertical pelvic displacement, and step test scores (P < 0.001-0.048). Significant predictors, when adjusted for country, prior falls and assistance (i.e., physical assistance and/or gait aid use) were stride length, step length asymmetry, mediolateral pelvic displacement, step test and TUG scores (P < 0.040; IQR-odds ratio(OR) = 1.37-7.85). With comfortable gait speed as an additional covariate, to determine the additive benefit over standard clinical assessment, only mediolateral pelvic displacement, TUG and step test scores remained significant (P = 0.001-0.018; IQR-OR = 5.28-10.29). Conclusions: Reduced displacement of the pelvis in the mediolateral direction during walking was the strongest predictor of post-stroke falls compared with other gait variables. Dynamic balance measures, such as the TUG and step test, may better predict falls than gait speed or static balance measures.
Author RAC is funded by a National Health and Medical Research Council Career Development Fellowship. The Singapore arm of the study was partly funded by the Singapore General Hospital Research Grants (SRG#04/2015 and SRG-AN#09/2016).
JournalJournal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation
Rights StatementThe Author reserves all moral rights over the deposited text and must be credited if any re-use occurs. Documents deposited in OPAL are the Open Access versions of outputs published elsewhere. Changes resulting from the publishing process may therefore not be reflected in this document. The final published version may be obtained via the publisher’s DOI. Please note that additional copyright and access restrictions may apply to the published version.
Science & TechnologyTechnologyLife Sciences & BiomedicineEngineering, BiomedicalNeurosciencesRehabilitationEngineeringNeurosciences & NeurologyStrokeOutcome assessmentPostural balanceGaitAccidental fallsLATERAL PELVIC DISPLACEMENTCONCURRENT VALIDITYPHYSICAL FUNCTIONSTANDING BALANCEOLDERPEOPLEGORELIABILITYSCALERISKHumansProspective StudiesAccidental FallsAgedMiddle AgedAustraliaFemaleMalePostural BalanceStroke Rehabilitation