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Differential production of phenolics, lipids, carbohydrates and proteins in stressed and unstressed aquatic plants, azolla filiculoides and azolla pinnata
journal contributionposted on 16.11.2020, 06:19 by TL Nham Tran, AF Miranda, Shamila Abeynayake, A Mouradov
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. The metabolic plasticity of shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways redirects carbon flow to different sink products in order to protect sessile plants from environmental stresses. This study assessed the biochemical responses of two Azolla species, A. filiculoides and A. pinnata, to the combined effects of environmental and nutritional stresses experienced while growing outdoors under Australian summer conditions. These stresses triggered a more than 2-fold increase in the production of total phenols and their representatives, anthocyanins (up to 18-fold), flavonoids (up to 4.7-fold), and condensed tannins (up to 2.7-fold), which led to intense red coloration of the leaves. These changes were also associated with an increase in the concentration of carbohydrates and a decrease in concentrations of lipids and total proteins. Changes in lipid biosynthesis did not cause significant changes in concentrations of palmitoleic acid (C16:0), linolenic acid (C18:3), and linoleic acid (C18:2), the fatty acid signatures of Azolla species. However, a reduction in protein production triggered changes in biosynthesis of alanine, arginine, leucine, tyrosine, threonine, valine, and methionine amino acids. Stress-triggered changes in key nutritional components, phenolics, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates could have a significant impact on the nutritional value of both Azolla species, which are widely used as a sustainable food supplement for livestock, poultry, and fish industries.