La Trobe
1199347_Chauhan,H_2022.pdf (289.19 kB)

Dietary Assessment Tools and Metabolic Syndrome: Is it Time to Change the Focus?

Download (289.19 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2022-05-03, 07:19 authored by H Chauhan, Regina BelskiRegina Belski, E Bryant, M Cooke
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with a range of chronic diseases, for which lifestyle interventions are considered the cornerstone of treatment. Dietary interventions have primarily focused on weight reduction, usually via energy restricted diets. While this strategy can improve insulin sensitivity and other health markers, weight loss alone is not always effective in addressing all risk factors associated with MS. Previous studies have identified diet quality as a key factor in reducing the risk of MS independent of weight loss. Additionally, supporting evidence for the use of novel strategies such as carbohydrate restriction and modifying the frequency and timing of meals is growing. It is well established that dietary assessment tools capable of identifying dietary patterns known to increase the risk of MS are essential for the development of personalised, targeted diet and lifestyle advice. The American Heart Association (AHA) recently evaluated the latest in a variety of assessment tools, recommending three that demonstrate the highest evidence-based and clinical relevance. However, such tools may not assess and thus identify all dietary and eating patterns associated with MS development and treatment, especially those which are new and emerging. This paper offers a review of current dietary assessment tools recommended for use by the AHA to assess dietary and eating patterns associated with MS development. We discuss how these recommendations align with recent and novel evidence on the benefits of restricting ultra-processed food and refined carbohydrates and modifying timing and frequency of meals. Finally, we provide recommendations for future redevelopment of these tools to be deployed in health care settings.


Publication Date









(p. 1557-1557)



Rights Statement

Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

Usage metrics

    Journal Articles


    No categories selected