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COVID-19 Pathophysiology Predicts That Ischemic Stroke Occurrence Is an Expectation, Not an Exception-A Systematic Review

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journal contribution
posted on 07.04.2021, 01:52 by Kulasekara Wijeratne, Sheila Crewther, Carmela Sales, Leila Karimi
Clinical reports of neurological manifestations associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), such as acute ischemic stroke (AIS), encephalopathy, seizures, headaches, acute necrotizing encephalitis, cerebral microbleeds, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, peripheral neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies, transverse myelitis, and demyelinating disorders, are increasing rapidly. However, there are comparatively few studies investigating the potential impact of immunological responses secondary to hypoxia, oxidative stress, and excessive platelet-induced aggregation on the brain. This scoping review has focused on the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with peripheral and consequential neural (central) inflammation leading to COVID-19-related ischemic strokes. It also highlights the common biological processes shared between AIS and COVID-19 infection and the importance of the recognition that severe respiratory dysfunction and neurological impairments associated with COVID and chronic inflammation [post-COVID-19 neurological syndrome (PCNS)] may significantly impact recovery and ability to benefit from neurorehabilitation. This study provides a comprehensive review of the pathobiology of COVID-19 and ischemic stroke. It also affirms that the immunological contribution to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 is predictive of the neurological sequelae particularly ischemic stroke, which makes it the expectation rather than the exception. This work is of fundamental significance to the neurorehabilitation community given the increasing number of COVID-related ischemic strokes, the current limited knowledge regarding the risk of reinfection, and recent reports of a PCNS. It further highlights the need for global collaboration and research into new pathobiology-based neurorehabilitation treatment strategies and more integrated evidence-based care.

History

Publication Date

28/01/2021

Journal

Frontiers in Neurology

Volume

11

Article Number

607221

Pagination

17p.

Publisher

Frontiers Media S.A.

ISSN

1664-2295

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The Author reserves all moral rights over the deposited text and must be credited if any re-use occurs. Documents deposited in OPAL are the Open Access versions of outputs published elsewhere. Changes resulting from the publishing process may therefore not be reflected in this document. The final published version may be obtained via the publisher’s DOI. Please note that additional copyright and access restrictions may apply to the published version.

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