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Association between the gut microbiota and blood pressure in a population cohort of 6953 individuals

journal contribution
posted on 21.12.2020, 06:45 by Joonatan Palmu, Aaro Salosensaari, Aki S Havulinna, Susan Cheng, Michael InouyeMichael Inouye, Mohit Jain, Rodolfo A Salido, Karenina Sanders, Caitriona Brennan, Gregory C Humphrey, Jon G Sanders, Erkki Vartiainen, Tiina Laatikainen, Pekka Jousilahti, Veikko Salomaa, Rob Knight, Leo Lahti, Teemu J Niiranen
Background Several small-scale animal studies have suggested that gut microbiota and blood pressure (BP) are linked. However, results from human studies remain scarce and conflicting. We wanted to elucidate the multivariable-adjusted association between gut metagenome and BP in a large, representative, well-phenotyped population sample. We performed a focused analysis to examine the previously reported inverse associations between sodium intake and Lactobacillus abundance and between Lactobacillus abundance and BP. Methods and Results We studied a population sample of 6953 Finns aged 25 to 74 years (mean age, 49.2±12.9 years; 54.9% women). The participants underwent a health examination, which included BP measurement, stool collection, and 24-hour urine sampling (N=829). Gut microbiota was analyzed using shallow shotgun metagenome sequencing. In age- and sex-adjusted models, the α (within-sample) and β (between-sample) diversities of taxonomic composition were strongly related to BP indexes (P<0.001 for most). In multivariable-adjusted models, β diversity was only associated with diastolic BP (P=0.032). However, we observed significant, mainly positive, associations between BP indexes and 45 microbial genera (P<0.05), of which 27 belong to the phylum Firmicutes. Interestingly, we found mostly negative associations between 19 distinct Lactobacillus species and BP indexes (P<0.05). Of these, greater abundance of the known probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei was associated with lower mean arterial pressure and lower dietary sodium intake (P<0.001 for both). Conclusions Although the associations between overall gut taxonomic composition and BP are weak, individuals with hypertension demonstrate changes in several genera. We demonstrate strong negative associations of certain Lactobacillus species with sodium intake and BP, highlighting the need for experimental studies.

Funding

Dr Niiranen was funded by Emil Aaltonen Foundation, Paavo Nurmi Foundation, Finnish Medical Foundation, and Academy of Finland, grant 321351. Dr Lahti was funded by Academy of Finland, grants 295741 and 307127. Dr Salomaa was supported by the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research. Dr Havulinna was supported by Academy of Finland, grant 321356. Dr Jain was supported in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including NIH S10OD020025 and R01ES027595. Dr Cheng was supported by NIH grants R01-HL134168, R01-HL131532, R01-HL143227, and R01-HL142983. The funding bodies had no role in the design of the study, in collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, and in writing the article.

History

Publication Date

04/08/2020

Journal

Journal of the American Heart Association

Volume

9

Issue

15

Article Number

e016641

Pagination

33p.

Publisher

Wiley

ISSN

2047-9980

Rights Statement

The Author reserves all moral rights over the deposited text and must be credited if any re-use occurs. Documents deposited in OPAL are the Open Access versions of outputs published elsewhere. Changes resulting from the publishing process may therefore not be reflected in this document. The final published version may be obtained via the publisher’s DOI. Please note that additional copyright and access restrictions may apply to the published version.