Analysis of Citrus Bioflavonoid Content and Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitory Potential of Commercially Available Supplements
Citrus bioflavonoids are polyphenolic plant-derived pigments found in high levels in oranges, lemons, grapefruits and other citrus fruits. The three most abundant types of citrus bioflavonoids are hesperidin, naringenin and eriocitrin. Citrus bioflavonoids have long been known to possess powerful free radical-scavenging properties and cardioprotective effects. The study involved the analysis of 10 commercially available citrus bioflavonoid supplements from three different countries: Australia, the United States and Canada. The supplements were tested for their citrus bioflavonoid content which varied from 0.8 to 33.3% w/w. The daily bioflavonoid dose varied from 19 mg to 560 mg. Hesperidin was the major citrus bioflavonoid in nine out of ten supplements. One supplement was found to contain less than 10% of the quantity of rutin claimed to have been added. The DPP-4 inhibitory potential, compared through an estimation of rutin equivalence, ranged from 1.9 mg to 400 mg per day. This data highlights the variability between the supplements in their potential to inhibit DPP-4 for subsequent health benefits.